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    1 Wells, The Historical Evidence for Jesus, p 1.

    2 Irenaeus of Lyons, Adversus Omnes Haereses, III, xi, 7.

    3 Hebrews, James, 1 and 2 Peter, and 3 John are all missing from the Muratorian Canon, although Wisdom and the Apocalypse of Peter are included. The Muratorian Canon is an eighth century Latin translation of the second century list, first published by L. A. Muratori, in 1740.

    4 Tertullian, De Praescriptione Haereticorum, pp 17-20.

    5 Eusebius, The History of the Church, on the relative datings quotes Irenaeus of Lyons (5:8 ) and Origen of Alexandria (6:25 ).

    6 Papias is quoted as saying that "Matthew compiled the Sayings in the Aramaic [i.e. Hebrew] language, and everyone translated them as well as he could". Eusebius, The History of the Church, 3:39:15, cf. 5:8 and 6:25.

    7 Examples of parables peculiar to the Luke author may be found at Luke 10:30-37; 13:6-9; 15:3-10 and 16:19-31.

    8 Jesus tells Pilate that he (Jesus) has been delivered to the Jews — as though he was not a Jew himself (John 18:36) — and says to his disciples "as I said unto the Jews.... " — as though they were not themselves all Jews (John 13:33).

    9 Wells, The Historical Evidence for Jesus, p 133.

    10 Irenaeus of Lyons, Adversus Omnes Haereses, III, xi, 7-8.

    11 Morton Smith, The Secret Gospel ( London, 1974), pp 14-16.

    12 For example Mark (10:46) relates that: ".... they came to Jericho: and as he went out of Jericho ...", which rather looks as though someone has edited out the events in Jericho. Sure enough, according to Clement's letter the Secret Gospel of Mark related that in Jericho " ...the sister of the young man whom Jesus loved and his mother and Salome were there, and Jesus received them not". That the fuller secret gospel is the more reliable is supported by incidental facts. First the author of the John gospel also mentions a man "whom Jesus loved" (John 19:26-27). Second, the story of a man whom Jesus raised from the dead is otherwise recorded in the John gospel, where the man is named as Lazarus. Also, there is an otherwise inexplicable passage in Mark (14:51-52): "And there followed him [Jesus] a certain young man, having a linen cloth cast about his naked body; and the young men laid hold on him: And he left the linen cloth, and fled from them naked.". This fits in with the activities described in the Secret Gospel, but makes no sense in the canonical version.

    13 The suppressed material referred to gnosis — the secret knowledge that distinguished Gnostic beliefs. It also referred to "that truth hidden by seven [veils?]", and Clement admitted that it was "read only to those who are being initiated into the great mysteries". Distinctly Gnostic ideas are also to be found in the canonical Mark gospel, notably at Mark 4:11-12.

    14 St Justin Martyr also refers to the memoirs of the apostles: First Apology 66.3, and Dialogue with Trypho the Jew, 101.3, 103.8 and 105.5.

    15 Eusebius, The History of the Church, 3:25.

    16 Eusebius, The History of the Church, 6:25.

    17 Dionysius, an early bishop of Alexandria, knew of a tradition that the Book of Revelation was the work of Cerinthus, the head of a rival sect. Eusebius, The History of the Church, 7:25.

    18 Wells, The Historical Evidence for Jesus, pp 89ff.

    19 2 Corinthians 2:4 for example refers to another letter to the Corinthians, written with many tears, which is unknown to us.

    20 For evidence of tampering see Wells, The Historical Evidence for Jesus, pp 8ff.

    21 For example the following stories come from these works: Acts of John — Raising of Drusiana; Acts of Paul — story of Thecla; Acts of Peter — Simon Magus and "Domine, quo vadis?"; Acts of Andrew — his crucifixion; and Acts of Thomas — King Gudaphorus.

    22 Mark 5:1. The Authorised Version refers to the country of the Gadarenes.

    23; Clement of Alexandria shared a similar, erroneous, view. He offers as "proof" of the resurrection the fact that seeds decay before somehow multiplying themselves and bringing forth fruit. First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, 24.

    24 There is no reason to suppose that Jewish practices had changed by the time that rabbis wrote about them in AD c. 200. See Robin Lane Fox, The Unauthorised Version, p 289.

    25 Stephen was executed (or perhaps lynched) by the Jews (Acts 7:59-60). James, Jesus" brother was tried, though this time it cost the high priest his job. Josephus, Jewish Antiquities, xx, ix, 1. See also Eusebius, The History of the Church, 2:23. Other indications are given by the fact that Herod Antipas (a Jew) executed hundreds of Jews, including John the Baptist. According to the Gospels Jesus had run the risk of being stoned by the Jews on several occasions. The famous adulteress who was about to be stoned by the Jews survived thanks to Jesus when he said: " ...He that is without sin among you, let him cast the first stone at her ..." (it was the custom for the accuser to cast the first stone). Again, after Jesus' death the Sanhedrin had threatened the apostles with death.

    26 H. Cohn, Trial and Death of Jesus, pp 97ff and 166ff.

    27 Some manuscripts have variant spellings of Sala, possibly attempts to cover up the error. The Authorised Version translates the name in Luke as Sala, the NIV and Jerusalem Bible prefer Shelah, which appears in later manuscripts.

    28 Another example of an Old Testament passage taken out of context and amended to meet the needs of the New Testament is John 7:38, either misquoting Zechariah 14:8 or an unknown scripture or making one up.

    29 Mark 8:34, cf. Matthew 10:38 and Luke 14:27.

    30 For a more detailed account of the conflicts between the Matthew and Luke stories, see Robin Lane Fox, The Unauthorised Version, pp 27ff.

    31 Luke cannot be confusing Herod I, King of Judæa (Luke 1:5), also known as Herod the Great, with his son Herod Antipas, because later he correctly identifies the son as tetrarch of Galilee not King of Judæa (Luke 3:1).

    32 Tthe existence (and ease) of divorce is confirmed in the Old Testament at Deuteronomy 24:1, Leviticus 21:7, 21:14 and 22:13, and Numbers 30:9.

    33 Matthew 26:47-56, Mark 14:43-52, Luke 22:47-53 and John 18:1-12.

    34 The hearings were before Annas (John 18:12-23), before Caiaphas (Matthew 26:57-68, Mark 14:53-65, Luke 22:66-71 and John 18:24-28), before Pilate (Luke 23:1-8), before Herod Antipas (Luke 23:8-12), and then before Pilate again (Matthew 27:11-26, Mark 15:2-15, Luke 23:13-25 and John 18:28-40).

    35 John 21:1-14, cf. Luke 5:1-11.

    36 Elisha fed 100 men with 20 barley loaves and some grain, leaving some leftovers (2 Kings 4:42-44). For a number of other interesting points about the New Testament story see Wells, The Historical Evidence for Jesus, pp 131ff.

    37 Joachim Kahl, The Misery of Christianity (English translation by N. D. Smith), Penguin Books, pp 128-9.

    38 Eusebius, The History of the Church, 6:17.

    39 Those who denied the divinity of Jesus for example felt the need to correct the "orthodox" scriptures: Eusebius, The History of the Church, 5:28.

    40 A good example is the changing of a key text to refer to Jesus instead of all believers (John 1:13). Tertullian accused the Valentinian Gnostics of having tampered with it to refer to all believers, but the truth was that Tertullian himself, or an "orthodox" scribe before him, had altered the text to refer to Jesus. See Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture, pp 27 and 59.

    41 Origen of Alexandria cited Jeremiah 20:7-12.

    42 That texts were amended to make them comply unambiguously with the latest version of "orthodoxy" is convincingly detailed by Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture.

    43 Paine, Age of Reason, Pt II, p 154.

    44 The Western text is almost 10 per cent longer than the Alexandrian text. It smoothed out a number of difficulties and slanted the text to the detriment of the Jews and in favour of the gentiles. See Wells, The Historical Evidence for Jesus, pp 3ff.

    45 Could this story be the one referred to in Eusebius, The History of the Church, 3:39 ? If so, it would not be the only story lifted from the Gospel of the Hebrews and inserted into manuscripts of Luke.

    46 Nicetas of Remesiana provides independent evidence that Elisabeth spoke the Magnificat. (Giovanni Miegge, The Virgin Mary (London, 1955), p 33 ).

    47 1 Samuel 2:1-10, but with other quotations and allusions. See footnote Luke 1i in the Jerusalem Bible.

    48 For numerous examples see Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture, pp 82-99.

    49 In Colossians 1:2 Jesus is bracketed with God by an insertion, and in Matthew 24:36 by an omission. In John 13:31-32 God is glorified in Jesus, as Jesus is glorified by God. See the footnotes in the NIV.

    50 Mark 1:1 and Acts 8:37 both contain additions referring to the son of God. See the footnotes in the NIV.

    51 Luke 22:43-44 and John 5:4 are both additions introducing angels. See the footnotes in the NIV.

    52 Matthew 27:35 and Mark 15:27. See the footnotes in the NIV.

    53 For example several amendments were made to the Lord's Prayer in Luke 11:2-4 to bring it into line with the version in Matthew 6:9-13. Also, the Matthew version was also added to. The ending "For thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, for ever" is found only in late manuscripts. Using it was once considered evidence of heresy. It is not included in most versions of the Bible, although it is almost invariably added to the prayer as popularly used. (See footnotes in the NIV for both Matthew and Luke.)

    54 For further examples see (in the NIV) Matthew 16:2, 17:21 and 21:44; Mark 10:7 and 14:72; Luke 3:33 and 23:17; and notes.

    55 Some 5,366 Greek witnesses are known up to the sixteenth century. Some are more complete than others. The assertion that of the thousands of Greek manuscripts that have survived, no two are identical excludes those witnesses that are tiny fragments. Ehrman, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture, p 27.

    56 The Cathar form of the prayer was, in French translation, "Donnez-nous notre pain supersubstantiel". Roquebert, Les Cathares, vol. 5, p 361.

    57 Cf.: Different translations of John 1:12-13:.

    But to all who did accept him he gave power to become children of God, to all who believe in the name of him who was born not out of human stock or urge of the flesh or will of man but of God himself (Jerusalem Bible, author's bold text).

    Yet to all who received him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God — children born not of natural descent, nor of human decision or a husband's will, but born of God (New International Version, author's bold text).

    The Jerusalem Bible is undoubtedly better poetry, but the text means something completely different.

    The Vulgate (Jerome's translation of the Bible into Latin) gives a similar version to that in the Jerusalem Bible. No Greek manuscript supports Jerome's choice. The only support comes in a single Latin translation.

    58 In his commentary on Luke, Erasmus translated the Greek kecharitomene into Latin as gratiosa "being in favour"

    59 David Daitches, The King James Version of the English Bible, Cicago: University of Chicago Press, 1941.

    60 Both of the Matthew and Mark authors refer to Simon the Canaanite in the Authorised Version (Matthew 10:4, Mark 3:18). Luke has Simon Zelotes (Luke 6:15, Acts 1:13). In the NIV all are translated as Simon the Zealot.

    61 Junia in the Authorised Version becomes Junius in the NIV (and The Jerusalem Bible). No one seems to have been in any doubt that Junia was a woman until the late Middle Ages. See Uta Ranke-Heinemann, Eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven, p 109.


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